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    英语新闻报道题型主题分析和应试技巧综述:关于检察院工作综述的新闻报道

    时间:2019-01-03 03:36:56 来源:雅意学习网 本文已影响 雅意学习网手机站

      摘 要: 本文对TEM-4听力测试新闻报道题型分类与应试技巧的分析介绍。意在帮助应试者了解新闻结构特点,以及听力测试的命题规律和出题形式,掌握基本对策,提高综合应试能力。
      关键词: 英语新闻 主题分析 应试技巧
      
      根据高校专业英语教学大纲的规定,英语专业学生在毕业时要能够听懂VOA和BBC新闻的主要内容。而新闻以丰富性、趣味性、时效性等特点成为提高学生听力水平的重要素材。这一点在专业英语的四、八级考试中得到了很好的体现。然而,对于英语专业四级考生来说,新闻听力却是一大难点:它录音语速快、专业词汇多、新闻用语有别于一般的口语;同时新闻听力背景知识复杂,涉及许多国家的人文、历史、地理、宗教等各方面的内容,这都加深了新闻听力的难度,使其不容易理解。要想在听力考试中攻克这一难关,考生应根据新闻的不同主题进行分类训练,增强应试能力。笔者就TEM-4听力试题中新闻部分考题进行分析,在本文中归纳出其选材规律和出题形式,并介绍相关的应试对策,以帮助考生更好地应对这部分考题。
      新闻的主题多种多样,但是专四听力考查的主题却有限。根据英语专业四级历年考题中新闻主题考查频率由高至低可归纳为以下几大主题。
      1.国际关系
      这类新闻经常涉及到两国矛盾、经济援助、经济制裁、两国建交、联盟协议等话题。并且结构上第一句话点明主旨,紧接着陈述细节。内容多着重于讲述国际关系的变化的前因后果、进程、达成的共识等。如:
      A joint committee will soon seek further cooperation between Egypt and Spain in industry,trade,investment and science and technology.Egyptian economic sources said the two sides will discuss the possibility of setting up a joint business council when the Egyptian- Spanish higher committee meets in the first half of September in Madrid,Spain.The business council is aimed at balancing bilateral trade by expanding trade volume.(2008专四真题)
      此类新闻考查范围较多的为细节题、主旨题、数字题。如针对以上这则新闻所给出考题为:
      (1)The joint committee will promote co-operation between Egypt and Spain in all the following areas EXCEPT______
      (2)What is this news item mainly about?_______
      针对此类新闻考生应该尽可能抓住新闻导语,特别关注于新闻细节部分给出的并列成分。常用句型有:“...signed an agreement to...”;“the agreement has to be approved by...”;“tensions were raised...because...”等。
      2.灾难新闻
      这类新闻涉及到的题材有暴力事件、恐怖袭击、沉船事件、空难等,还包括地震、水灾、泥石流等自然灾害。此类新闻通常要突现灾难是否具有可预测性、可防性或安全意外性,以及天灾性与人为性等基本特征,灾难程度和常发频率是报道的核心,抗灾或救护及国际社会的反应等是后续观察点。其考点多为细节题、数字题、主旨题,尤以数字和细节题考查最多。如:
      Storms sank two river ferries in southern Bangladesh on Sunday and some 90 passengers were reported missing while at least another 68 died.One of the packed ferries carrying around 150 people capsized early on Sunday on the Meghna river and 50 were rescued.A second ferry sank on the same river just one kilometer away leaving 40 passengers missing after 6 were rescued.(2006专四真题)
      考题为:
      (1)Altogether how many people were reported missing______
      (2)Which of the following details is INCORRECT_____
      针对此类新闻考生应特别关注事件发生的地点和时间,以及事件所造成的伤亡人数,经济损失。此外考生应集中记忆相关词汇,如:volcano eruption(火山爆发),flood(洪灾),tsunami(海啸),mudslide(泥石流),sandstorm(沙尘暴),earthquake(地震),drought(干旱),tornado(龙卷风),plague(瘟疫),air crash(空难),terrorist attack(恐怖袭击),suicide bombing(自杀性爆炸),death toll(死亡人数),injured/wounded(受伤的),casualty(伤亡者)等。掌握常用句型“...were reported missing”,“...were killed and more than...injured.”等。
      3.犯罪新闻
      这类主题新闻的题材一般包括:个人刑事犯罪、引渡犯人、偷渡事件、宗教犯罪、性丑闻等。此类新闻通常注重国际犯罪的新动向,以及该案例的影响程度。一般还会有背景简介和最新观察点,同时会交代国际合作办案的新措施和新趋势。针对这类主题新闻,常见考点有细节题、主旨题。如:
      Around 40 former military officers in Argentina have been arrested for possible extradition to Spain on human rights charges.The arrest came as the Argentine government struck down the decree prohibiting such extradition,saying all Argentines should be equal before the law.Those detained include a former navy captain and several other ex-officers suspected of torture or murder during the last period of military rule in Argentina,which ended in 1983.(2005 专四真题)
      1)What would happen to the Argentine officers?
      2)What accusation would the Argentine officers face?
      针对此类考题,考生应特别关注新闻的导语,清楚案件的性质、原因和结果。特别注意常用句型中包含的信息点。常用句型有:“a court in...is due to deliver its verdict in...”;“...is accused of...and faces up to...in prison”;“...is arrested for...”。同时考生也需要积累一定的常用词汇帮助理解此类新闻题材的内容。如:verdict(判决),guilty(有罪的),trail(审判),execute(处死),appeal(上诉),accuse,charge(控告),sanction(制裁),rape(强奸),robbery(抢劫),assassination(暗杀),bribe(贿赂),kidnap(绑架),arson(纵火),hijack(劫持),corruption(腐败),extradite(引渡)等。
      4.民生调查
      这类新闻涉及的题材有:患病统计、城市设备使用、人类与环境、寿命统计等。此类新闻通常注重民族发展与经济改革的相互关系,突出全球扶贫活动的新动向,分析发达国家与发展中国家对待环境问题的共同利益和本质矛盾,着眼有限资源的无序争夺和不合理分配造成的世界南北差距等基本问题。常见考法:数字题、推论题、细节题,其中数字题考查最多。如:
      Airlines are being hit with huge increases to insure their planes after the terrorist attacks in the United States.Goshawk Insurance Holdings which insures aircraft around the world,said rates have soared as much as tenfold since the September 11th terror attacks airlines around the world have cut services and dismissed staff as their business has plunged in the week of the crisis.They are also struggling with increased security costs.(2003专四真题)
      考题:After the terrorist attacks in the United States,insurance rates soared as much as_____.
      此类主题的新闻使用词汇丰富,考生应该平时多关注社会动态,积累最新社会现象相对应的新词,如:avian influenza/bird flu(禽流感),hand-and-foot-mouth disease(HFMD)(手足口病),H1N1(甲流感)等,同时注意常用但并不熟悉的表数概念词汇,如“-fold”“decade”“dozen”“score”。如遇到表示数字推算的题,要特别注意表达增减概念的词:go up to,increased to,grow to(增加到),increase,grow,a rise of(增加),as many as,...times of,reach等。
      5.政治新闻
      这一题材的新闻一般包括:游行示威、罢工、政党争权、总统竞选等。此类新闻常见考查方式为细节和数字题,其中细节题考查最多。如:
      Despite reports of intimidation,Zimbabweans swarmed to polling stations on the final day of voting in the most competitive parliamentary election in Zimbabwe’s history.On the first day of voting,lines of hundreds of voters sneaked around some of the country’s 4000 polling stations.A total of 120 seats were being contested,and Mugabe appoints another 30 law makers giving him and his party a built-in advantage.(2008专四真题)
      考题:Which of the following statements is CORRECT according to the news?
      此类主题新闻常用词汇有:embassy(使馆),ambassador(大使),ally(联盟),cabinet(内阁),demonstration(游行示威),protest(抗议),election(选举),vote(投票),poll(票数),rebel(反叛),summitry(峰会),anarchism(无政府主义),campaign(运动),strike(罢工),sit-in(静坐示威)等。
      6.经济新闻
      此类新闻通常关注全球指导性的经济新闻和经济潮流。报道经济保护和经济合作的矛盾性和统一性。针对这类新闻题材考查较多的是:细节题、主旨题、数字题。如:An economic forum on opportunities in China is expected to bring scholars,business leaders and government officials to Beijing next week.More than 800 delegates are expected to attend 3-da Fortune Global Forum which opens on Monday.More than 250 foreign companies including 76 of the global 500 will be represented.The forum is held annually by the US’Fortune Magazine.This will be the forum’s 10th year and third in China.Shanghai hosted it in 1999 and Hong Kong in 2001.(2007 专四真题)
      考题:1)What is the theme of the forum?_______
      2)According to the news,the first forum was held_____
      这类新闻常用句型有:“...have become the latest foreign entrance in...market.” “...will soon seek further cooperation between...and...”等。
      7.其他类新闻
      这部分所涉及到的新闻主题主要有科技类、旅游类、教育类及体育类。其内容常包括:航天科技、基因工程、网络技术、景点游客数量变化、教育改革或新政策、各类体育比赛、球星动向等。这类主题考查最多的方式是采用细节题和数字题。
      因此考生在通过抓住新闻导语掌握新闻主要内容的同时,更要注意数字及动向变化的细节题。把握相关信息关键词的正确意思,往往考题中出现同义替换的选项。
      8.结语
      对于专四考生来说提高新闻听力并不是一朝一夕的事情。学习者需要有针对性地积累和记忆不同主题新闻的常用词汇和用语,同时养成坚持听英语广播新闻的习惯,熟悉新闻广播的语速,培养自己对新闻的敏感性。此外平时还应该多读英文报刊,注意扩大自己的知识面,开阔自己的视野,不断地丰富大脑中的图式,以便在听力理解的过程中能够很快地使自己大脑中的知识图式与输入信息相匹配,从而激活图式,指导其作出正确的预测、推论和判断。这样才能从根本上提高考生对新闻广播的听力理解能力。
      
      参考文献:
      [1]陈开顺.最新英语专业四级考试指南[M].世界图书出版公司,2004.
      [2]颉敬东.听力教学中新闻英语的模式[J].江苏理工大学学报,2000,(4).
      [3]卢曦.英语听力题型分析和应试对策[J].福建商业高等专科学校学报,2002,(10).
      [4]单小明.英语专业四级新闻强化与高分[M].世图音像电子出版社,2008.
      [5]王厚平.2010英语专业四级考试历年真题点评[M].山东科学技术出版社,2010.

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