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    非英语专业本科生英语写作常见错误分析 英语专业与非英语专业英语写作对比

    时间:2018-12-23 19:51:24 来源:雅意学习网 本文已影响 雅意学习网手机站

      摘 要:非英语专业本科生在英语写作时经常出现各种各样的常见错误,在本文中,作者根据多年的教学经验,从英语写作标题的规范性、语言使用以及行文的方面进行了分析。   关键词:非英语专业 英语 写作 错误 分析
      
      英语写作是英语学习的重要组成部分,学习者英语写作水平的高低是衡量其英语综合能力的重要标准之一。按照教育部颁发的《大学英语课程要求》(试行)对非英语专业本科生的写作水平有三种要求,即:一般要求,较高要求和更高要求。对大多数非英语专业本科生来说较适合一般要求,即:能完成一般性的写作任务,能描述个人经历、观感、和发生事件等,能写常见的应用文,能就一般性话题或提纲在半小时内写出120词的短文,内容基本完整,用词恰当,语意连贯。能掌握基本的写作技巧。
      按照上述要求,本人在教学中进行大量训练,发现许多学生在语言使用和行文等方面存在问题较多。
      
      一、标题的规范性
      
      标题应写在第一行的中间。标题的第一个词的首字母应大写,其余的词的首字母也都应大写,但冠词、并列连词(and, or, but, nor, for )、简短的介词和不定式的to除外,如:
      My First Visit to the Palace Museum
      The People Without a Country
      Rules to Abide By
      Dickens and David Copperfield
      What Can the Artist Do in the World of Today?
      What Reform Means to China
      The Myth of a“Negro Literature”
      The English-Speaking People in Quebec
      标题后不加句号。如标题是疑问句,应加问号。标题中引用的词语或其他文章的标题,应加引号;书名则在下面画线或用斜体标明。
      Different cultures,different ways Of thinking(wrong)
      Different Cultures,Different Ways of Thinking(right)
      Dad,I want To say...to you(wrong)
      Dad,I Wang to Say...to You(right)
      但现在有更多的人只将标题的第一个词的首字母大写,其余一律小写。
      
      二、语言使用方面
      
      众所周知,英语和汉语在词汇、语法存在着很大的差异,因而导致表达形式上的不同。
      (一)时态与语态错误
      时态是动词作谓语时的一种形式,它指示动作是何时发生、进行、完成的,以及发生、进行的方式等。写作时应根据所写作的内容确定出主时性时态(leading tense),即全篇文章应以哪种时态为主,是一般现在时,还是一般过去时等。如:描述或叙述过去发生的事,其主导时态为过去时。写作时应注意同一叙述里不得随意转换谓语动词的时态,要保持时态的一致性。英语的两种语态,即主动语态和被动语态,写作时不要混淆动作的发出者和承受者而误用语态,更不要在同一句中并用两种语态。列如:
      (a)When I was young,I always want to play with you.(wrong)
      (b)When I was young,I always wanted to play with you.(right)
      (a)In my childhood,my family is very poor.(wrong)
      (b)In my childhood,my family was very poor.(right)
      (a)Between 40 and 50 parents said they will like their children to take part.(wrong)
      (b)Between 40 and 50 parents said they would like their children to take part.(right)
      这个句子中的错句(a)主句中的谓语使用了过去时形式,而宾语从句的谓语却使用了一般现在时,前后时态不一致。应调整为(b)句。
      (a)We are often glad to have a hearty conversation and heated discussion among ourselves after the lecture finished.(wrong)
      (b)We are often glad to have a hearty conversation and heated discussion among ourselves after we finish the class.(right)
      这个句子的中的错句(a)从句部分使用了被动语态形式,这会使句子产生歧义。从句的主语应尽量同主句的主语语态相一致。应调整为(b)句。
      (二)用词或词汇搭配不当
      中国学生在英语写作时经常在词汇选择上或词汇搭配上出现问题。英语的同义词数量很大,学会和掌握同义词的语义和用法并非易事,只有进行大量练习,才能逐渐掌握。此外,英语中有些动词和形容词要求与固定的介词或副词搭配使用。写作时一定注意其规律。
      这个句子中house应换成housework
      (a)She goes to work everyday except Sunday.(wrong)
      (b)She goes to work every day except Sunday.(right)
      这个句子中everyday应换成every day.
      (a)My driving license has been overdue.(wrong)
      (b)My driving license has expired.(right)
      这个句子要表达的意思是“我的驾驶执照过期了”。如果不知道此处“过期”一词该用expire,而误用了overdue一词,那么错误就在所难免。overdue一词在汉语中虽然也有“过期”或“逾期”的含义,但该词只适用于帐单、应支付款项、图书馆所借书刊等的过期。而执照、合同、图书馆借书证的“过期”则要用expire一词,而不用overdue。
      (a)The Social Party won the election for next term.(wrong)
      (b)The Socialist Party won the election for next term.(right)
      这个句子要表达的意思是“社会党赢得了下一界选举的胜利”。应该知道“社会党”这一概念的准确的含义,它是社会主义党的缩写形式,因此,应使用Socialist一词,而不是social一词。
      (a)Do just like I do,and you will have little difficulty.(wrong)
      (b)Do just as I do,and you will have little difficulty.(right)
      这个句子中like应换成as。like侧重比较,不意味着比较的东西属于同一类或完全相似。而as侧重同一性,意味着所比较的事物属于同一类或完全相同。同时,as既可作介词(通常用来引导同位语、表语、补语),又可作连接词(引导从句)。但like通常只能用作介词。列如:
      My brother isn’t much like me.
      He is a dancer,as his father used to do.
      (a)My doctor told me there was nothing wrong of me physically;the illness was pure psychological.(wrong)
      (b)My doctor told me there was nothing wrong with me physically;the illness was pure psychological.(right)
      这个句子中of应换成with,因为be nothing wrong with是固定搭配。
      a)The Smiths decided to travel by the train.(wrong)
      b)The Smiths decided to travel by train.(right)
      这个句子中应将the去掉,因在表示交通工具或通讯手段的短语中,不能使用定冠词。
      (a)Since 1978 it has taken place great changes in China.(wrong)
      (b)Since 1978 great changes have taken place in China.(ringt)
      这个句子中take place是不及物动词词组,不能当作及物动词词组使用。
      
      三、行文方面
      
      (一)句型单一,缺少变换
      多数学生在英语写作时经常使用相同的、单一的句型,句子单调,缺乏色彩。“to be”句型使用过多,“to do”句型使用过少。应尽量多使用后者,灵活运用不同的句型、非谓语动词、被动语态等,而使文章生动、有趣吸引读者。列如:
      (1)My father is a worker.He is tall.He is old.He enjoys music very much.
      My father,a worker,tall and old,enjoys music very much.(better)
      (2)When he is introduced to somebody,a British person often shakes hands.
      On being introduced to somebody,a British person often shakes hands.(better)
      (3)Li Shiguang was a very famous scientist.He set a very good example for us.
      Li Shiguang,a very famous scientist,set a very good example for us.(better)
      (4)My father’s great-grandfather was an early settler in America.He helped to establish the tobacco industry in America.
      My father’s great-grandfather,an early settler in America,helped to establish the tobacco industry in America.(better)
      (5)The Great Wall is one of the world wonders.More and more visitors visit it each year.
      The Great Wall,one of the world wonders,attract more and more tourists each year.(better)
      (二)中文式英语
      汉语和英语是两种完全不同的语言,无论词汇的运用还是句子结构等方面都有很大差异。中国学生因受其母语影响,在英文写作时经常用汉语思维,常常按汉语的语序逐词、逐句地译成英文,写出一些中文式的英语,例如:
      (1)我非常感谢你。
      I very thank you. (wrong)(按汉语逐字译成英文。)
      I thank you very much.(right)
      (2)你一定要作一名好丈夫。
      You must do a good husband.(wrong)(这里“作”应该是“成为”的意思。)
      You must be a good husband.(right)
      (3)我仍然没有在经济上独立。
      I still not independent in finance.(wrong)(按汉语逐字译成英文)
      I haven’t been independent in finance/economically.(right)
      (4)火药是在12世纪发明的,但是200年后才用于战争。
      Gunpowder was discovered in the twelfth century,but after two hundred years it was used in war.(wrong)(按汉语顺序逐字译成英文,不符合英文的表达习惯。)
      Gunpowder was discovered in the twelfth century,but was used in war until two hundred years later.(right)
      (4)他胸怀和大海一样宽广。
      His chest is as vast as sea. (wrong)(英语中的“胸怀”应该用mind,且英语的sea前,要用定冠词the。)
      His mind is as vast as the sea.(right)
      总之,非英语专业本科生在英语写作时可能出现各种各样的错误,限于篇幅,仅举上述几种。大家只要勤加练习,注意总结,英语写作水平一定会有很大的提高。
      
      参考文献:
      [1]徐覃荪,何昌邑等.英语实用文体写作详解.云南大学出版社,2001年3月.
      [2]丁往道,吴冰等.英语写作手册.外语教学与研究出版社(A Handbook of Writing),1994年6月.
      [3]艾景堂.英语写作技巧与模式吉林大学出版社,1994年2月.
      [4]Theodore A.Sherman.Modern Technical Writing(现代技术写作).Inc,Englewood Cliffs.

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